Music Theory Colloquium Series
All events are on Wednesdays at 3:30 p.m. in M 267 unless otherwise noted.
Fall 2016 Events
Jessica Sommer (Indiana University), “Music Making: An Embodied Process”
Taking an approach through the concepts of embodied cognitive science, this paper addresses the process of music learning from practice through rehearsal to performance and beyond. Situated within the embodied cognitive literature, the study begins with a look at learning through the eyes of an ecological theory of perception and action, while taking into account recall, memory, and creativity. Learning is also inherently social, and includes aspects that are direct, indirect, and subliminal, based on interaction level. Learning, and further, performance, is based on perception and action physically, but also metaphorically. The metaphors used to both produce and analyze music may be based on embodied language that derives from practice and performance.
These theories of embodiment and learning, through physical and metaphorical action and language, are further applied to practice, rehearsal, and performance. Examples used include Benjamin Britten’s “Pan” from Six Metamorphoses after Ovid, and Francis Poulenc’s Trio for oboe, bassoon, and piano.
Leah Frederick (Indiana University), “Generic (Mod-7) Voice-Leading Spaces"
In the burgeoning field of geometric music theory, scholars have explored ways of spatially representing voice leadings between chords. The OPTIC spaces provide a way to examine all “classes” of n-note chords formed under various types of equivalence: octave, permutational, transpositional, inversional, and cardinality. Although it is possible to map diatonic progressions in these spaces, they often appear irregular since the spaces are constructed with the fundamental unit of a mod-12 semitone, rather than a mod-7 diatonic step. Outside of geometric music theory, the properties of diatonic structure have been studied more broadly: Clough has established framework for describing diatonic structure analogous to that of Forte’s set theory; Hook provides a more generalized, “generic,” version of this work to describe any seven-note scale. This paper employs these theories in order to explore the fundamental difference between mod-12 and mod-7 spaces: that is, whether the spaces are fundamentally discrete or continuous.
After reviewing the construction of these voice-leading spaces, this paper will present the mod-7 OPTIC-, OPTI-, OPT-, and OP-spaces of 2- and 3-note chords. Although these spaces are fundamentally discrete, they can be imagined as lattice points within a continuous space. This construction reveals that the chromatic (mod-12) and generic (mod-7) voice-leading lattices both derive from the same topological space. In fact, although the discrete versions of these lattices appear to be quite different, the topological space underlying each of these graphs depends solely on the number of notes in the chord and the particular OPTIC relations applied.
Note: The handout for this talk is available as a PDF at the Music Theory Colloquium Canvas site
Bryan Christian (University of Northern Colorado; Colorado State University), “Searching for the Unknown in Combination-Tone Class Set Analysis: A Closer Look at Claude Vivier’s Glaubst du an die Unsterblichkeit der Seele”
Based in Montreal for most of his life, Claude Vivier (1948–83) was a Canadian-born composer whose advocates have posthumously proclaimed one of that country’s greatest composers. Despite composing in a wide range of styles, Vivier is most widely known for his late period which began with his work Lonely Child (1980). This work was considerably indebted to the spectral techniques of Gérard Grisey and Tristan Murail. In an article published in Music Theory Online in 2014, I discussed how Vivier’s homophonic treatment of combination tones (generated from a melody and drone pitch) necessitated a new analytical tool: combination-tone class (CTC) set analysis. This analysis focused on Vivier’s work Bouchara (1981) and relied on the verification of the results with Vivier’s sketches. The present study addresses how to use CTC set analysis in the absence of such sketch evidence. Vivier’s final work, Glaubst du an die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (Do you believe in the Immortality of the Soul; 1983) provides a fascinating case study.
Glaubst du, which contains an eerie premonition of Vivier’s murder at the end of the score, is widely considered to be unfinished. The scarce sketch materials that do exist reveal no evidence that Vivier used his combination tone technique — what he called les couleurs — in Glaubst du. Indeed, many scholars, most notably Vivier’s late biographer Bob Gilmore, argue that Glaubst du is a significant departure from Vivier’s immediately preceding spectral works, likely due to the absence of microtonality. However, by adapting and generalizing CTC set analysis, my research shows that Vivier continued to construct his harmonic material in a spectrally informed manner. Given a test sonority, this study presents an algorithm for determining possible virtual generating dyads (VGD), which would be valid candidates for the tones that would produce combination tones that correspond to the test sonority. Although more than one VGD will exist for a sonority – in the same way that any collection of pitches would have more than one virtual fundamental – intimate knowledge of the internal structures of combination tone sonorities allows the analyst to select a best fitting VGD. Combining VGDs with CTC set analysis, we can deduce the algorithms that Vivier used to calculate the pitch material in Glaubst du. Thus, with this expanded CTC set tool I show that Vivier’s approach to constructing harmony in Glaubst du was not a departure from his spectral harmonic practice, but that it was an extension of this practice.
Nathan Beary Blustein (Indiana University), “Playwriting in Song: ‘Reprise Types’ in Stephen Sondheim’s Sweeney Todd”
Reprise pervades Sweeney’s score. Every character recalls passages from earlier songs, altering music and lyrics according to the dramatic circumstances that have motivated their (near-)repetition. Analysis of reprise in musical theatre traditionally revolves around the direct relationship between a song and its later recurrences at significant plot points. Yet many reprises in Sweeney also bear striking similarities to each other—not in the music that they recall, but how the recalled music functions within the formal, tonal, and motivic context of each new song. Seemingly disparate songs—-in setting, dramatic situation, and emotional stake—-can be linked when characters sing the same type of reprise. By analyzing and interpreting published scores, sound/video recordings of professional productions, and music/lyric sketches, I argue that these links (a) amplify, supplement, or even contradict the story of Sweeney as it develops on stage, and (b) refine our technical understanding of the sheer variety in Sondheim’s creative approaches to reprise.
First, I compare four songs throughout the show in which one of the star-crossed lovers—-the sailor Anthony and the Judge’s ward Johanna—-sings a brief reprise: “Ah, Miss” and “Kiss Me!”, which blossom into lyrical reprises that achieve tonal closure; and “Pretty Women” and “City on Fire!”, which are both disrupted by reprises of the same song. Next, I examine the two songs that Todd and Mrs. Lovett sing in the Act I finale: “Epiphany” and “A Little Priest.” Opposing forces seemingly guide this scene from all sides, but each song begins similarly, building up to a “corrected” reprise of a song from the opening of the act.
Monday, October 17 (4:05 p.m., MU 205)
Mike Cheng-Yu Lee (Indiana University), “Webern and 'Early Music'”
(Colloquium offered jointly by the Historical Performance Institute and the Department of Music Theory)
We typically think of being involved with “Early Music” as researching and performing musics far enough back in time that their performance contexts and traditions have been lost to us. But how recent is too recent for “Early Music”? In this lecture-demonstration, I show that the approaches of Early Music, or perhaps more aptly Historical Performance, can inform the performance of 20th-century music. I provide different kinds of evidence that shed light on how Webern might have imagined the performance of his own works. I then contrast this evidence against a set of norms underlying the performance of his music that have taken shape since the postwar era. I will conclude the lecture by sharing my “historically informed” performance of the Variations, Op. 27.
Gretchen Horlacher (Indiana University), “Movement in Music and Dance: A Neoclassical Collaboration for Orpheus”
Imagine the opening of a ballet whose central character stands with his back to the audience, motionless, for more than two minutes. This is exactly what happens in the Stravinsky-Balanchine collaboration for Orpheus from 1948. The opening music also displays unusual qualities of stasis; the alliance between dance and music sets forth a neoclassical work whose scarce and idiosyncratic movement underlies its mournful and ritualistic theme.
The collaborations of composer Igor Stravinsky with choreographer George Balanchine are held as an exemplar of artistic collaboration, and their work together on the ballet Orpheus is documented as particularly close. I will describe how music and dance interrelate in the ballet’s most critical scene, as Orpheus attempts to lead Eurydice back to earth. In particular I will pay attention to the two artists’ manipulation of repetitive movement.
Monday, November 7 (5:00 p.m., Sweeney Lecture Hall, M 015)
Eric Clarke (Oxford University), “Music, Empathy, and Cultural Understanding”
(Five Friends Master Class Series Honoring Robert Samels)
Tuesday, November 8 (2:30–4:30 p.m., M 0340)
Eric Clarke (Oxford University), Workshop: “Music and Social Bonding: Issues and Methods”
Workshop participants will find materials at the Music Theory Colloquium Canvas site
Eric Clarke (Oxford University), "Music and Ecological Theory”
What is the relationship between music perception and musical meaning? Is there anything in common between general principles of auditory perception and people’s enculturated engagement with music? There has at times been something of a gulf between research in the psychology of music and music theory—though bridged at different times and in various ways by a number of distinguished figures. In this talk I make the case for understanding music from the perspective of ecological perceptual theory (derived primarily from the work of the American psychologist James Gibson), and consider the strengths of such an approach for both music psychology and music theory, as well as the questions and challenges that it throws up.
Professional Development Session